Human Growth & Development

Study Questions: Chapter 1

1. Human development is a field devoted to...

2. Explain what a theory is and why they are vital to HG & D.

3. Explain the distinctions between the extremes of mechanistic and organismic theories.

4. Describe the nature/nurture controversy, and explain how stability and change relate to it.

5. List and describe the 4 assumptions (p. 8) associated with the lifespan perspective.

a. what do multidimensional and multidirectional mean?

b. What is plasticity?

c. what are the 3 categories of influences associated with multiple contexts

6. Which of the 3 multiple context influences impacts the multidirectional assumption of HG & D? Why?

a. As one ages, which influence decreases and which tends to become more influential?

7. A. Describe the difference between periods and stages.

B. List and define the 8 periods of HG & D.

C. In each period there are 3 broad DOMAINS of development.. List and describe each.

8. Which cultural has most dramatically influenced the study of lifespan development?

9. Define each of the following and indicate how they are related: preformationism, predeterminism, tabula rasa, noble savage, maturation.

10. Briefly describe the history of the formal study of lifespan development.

11. Describe and compare Freud and Erickson’s psychoanalytic perspective.

A. List and describe (LD) the psychosexual and psychosocial stages.

B. Page 17 provides Erickson’s interpretation of the Yurok’s practice of depriving babies of breastmilk for the first 10 days of life. Given that cultural practices do influence how people respond to others, does this make such practices "OK?" Defend your answer.

12. Describe 2 reasons why the psychoanalytic tradition is not well accepted today.

13. Describe the major features of behaviorism and social learning theory.

14. LD Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.

15. What is the relationship between sensitive periods and imprinting. Describe the features of ethology.

  1. Describe Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory.

LD the 5 interrelated systems proposed by Bronfenbrenner.

17. Compare Vygotsky’s theory to Piaget’s.

18. All theories differ in at least 3 respects. Describe each (p. 24).

19. Describe 2 reasons why you need to learn about research.

20. Table 1.6 covers the various types of DESCRIPTIVE studies. LD each.

21. Compare CORRELATIONAL studies with descriptive and EXPERIMENTAL ones.

22. Compare longitudinal, cross-sectional, and longitudinal-sequential designs.

23. Explain the differences between independent and dependent variables.

A. what is a cohort effect?

24. LD the five "rights" research must follow (table 1.8).


Study Questions: Chapter 2

1. Define the following terms: karyotype, phenotype, genotype, chromosomes, DNA, gene, gametes, zygote, autosomes, sex-chromosomes, dizygotic & monozygotic twins, dominant/recessive, mutation

2. List the 4 chemicals that make up DNA. These chemicals always appear in pairs; which go with which (adenine is always paired with...)?

3. What is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?

4. Briefly name and describe the organs and physical processes associated with the production of gametes and the production of the zygote.

List and Describe the 6 factors associated with increasing the likelihood of a woman having dizygotic twins.

5. Explain the relationship between phenotype and genotype using the concepts of dominant and recessive genes.

6. What is the main difference between the sex chromosomes and autosomes?

7. Describe how a recessive disease such as sickle cell anemia may be a result of Darwin’s natural selection.

8. Why are males more likely to suffer genetic disorders?

9. Describe the following genetic disorders: Down’s, PKU, XXX and XXY, XYY, XO

A. Select ONE other genetic disorder and describe it.

10. List and describe the 5 methods used to diagnosis abnormalities in utero.

11. Compare/contrast (2-3 dimensions) the factors one should weigh before deciding to adopt.

12. Describe 3 of the reproductive strategies (e.g., in vitro fertilization, donor insemination, surrogate mothers, fertility drugs, etc.) currently available to couples having difficulty conceiving.

13. Describe the four "steps" prospective parents should follow to increase the chance of conception.

14. Describe Bronfenbrenner’s social systems perspective of family functioning (be sure to include direct, indirect influences, and the concept of bidirectionality).

15. Describe the ways social class, education, and poverty are related to family functioning.

16. On p. 61 of the Berk text, she states what Gould calls an unarticulated assumption--in this case that government is responsible for insuring that family needs are met. Present at least 2 alternative to this being a function/responsibility of government.

A. what are the distinctions between collectivism and individualism, and which governmental types is each associated with?

B. Describe what you feel are appropriate public policies with respect to families, children, and the elderly, explaining your reasoning.

Study Questions: Chapter 3

Study Questions: Prenatal Development and Birth

1. Define the following terms: Gestation, embryonic disk, implantation, amnion, placenta, embryo, umbilical tube, neural tube, fetus, vernix, lanugo, viability, teratogen, FAS, Rh factor, dilation, effacement, transition, Apgar Scale, natural childbirth, anoxia, breech, cesarean, reflex, arousal, REM, toxemia/eclampsia, analgesics, anesthetics, premature, isolette, bonding, neonate

2. List and describe the 3 phases of in utero development.

a. State the timelines (e.g., implantation of blastocyst occurs between the 7th-9th day of pregnancy) associated with each of the changes that occur during each phase.

3. List and describe the three cell layers that embryonic disk forms, indicating which "layer" develops into which organs.

4. At what point in prenatal development is brain cell development complete?

5. When is a fetus usually viable?

6. In which part of the prenatal period does major weight gain and growth occur?

7. Teratogens' affects on development depends on 4 factors; describe each. Explain how sensitive periods are related to the effects of teratogens.

8. Describe how prescription and nonprescription, legal and illegal drugs can be teratogens.

a. Describe how alcohol & cigarettes can affect prenatal development.

9. List and describe how radiation and infectious diseases can adversely affect prenatal development.

10. Describe the "other" maternal factors that can positively or negatively affect the organism’s healthy development.

11. A continuing theme through this text involves greater governmental responsibility for insuring the healthy development of children in all periods. Develop a case for greater governmental involvement, and a case for this being an area beyond the scope of government.

12. List and describe the 3 stages of normal birth.

13. List and describe (see table 3.3) how the Apgar Scale is used to evaluate newborns.

14. Summarize the history of childbirth options.

a. When is medical interventions indicated for the birthing of a baby?

15. Describe the difference between premature and small for date.

a. Explain how being premature can affect the type of care given to the baby.

16. What is respiratory distress syndrome?

17. List and describe the 9 reflexes described in table 3.4.

18. Summarize the sensory capacities of the neonate.

19. List and describe the 5 states of arousal (table 3.5)

20. What’s the function of crying? Explain how crying can be a learned activity and what caregivers should do to "break" operant crying.

a. List describe the 8 ways one can soothe a crying baby.

21. Summarize the do’s and don’ts for a healthy pregnancy.


Study Questions: Chapter 4

Infancy and Toddlerhood

1. Define the following terms: cephalocaudal trend, proximodistal trend, glial cells, myelinization, brain plasticity, marasmus, kwashiorkor, nonorganic failure to thrive, SIDS,

2. What is the distinction between an infant and a toddler (infancy vs. toddlerhood)

3. Describe how toddlers grow.

4. What is the function of baby fat that infants develop during infancy?

5. Describe the physical growth differences between boys and girls during infancy-adolescence.

6. Norms describe developmental milestones that represent the average for the group. Individual differences account for differences in the RATE at which milestones are achieved.

Different body parts grow at different rates and reflect cepahlocaudil and proximodistal trends. Compare these trends to each other.

7. Describe the changes in arousal levels that occur between birth and age 2.

8. Describe the relationship between heredity, nutrition, and a positive/stimulating environment on one’s physical growth.

9. In many cultures, babies sleep with parents. Not, typically, with middle class American parents. Describe the benefits and problems associated with such sleeping arrangements.

10. Describe the history of breast and bottle feeding in the US.

11. Does breastfeeding or bottle feeding offer psychological advantages to babies? Explain.

12 List and describe the 5 advantages of breast feeding (p. 124).

13. Describe the relationship between being fat as a baby and obesity later on.

14. Describe and evaluate the 5 suggestions associated with developing good eating habits (p. 125)--would you add to or modify any of the recommendations? Which? How?

15. Describe the relationship between malnutrition and physical development; include the diet related diseases of: marasmus, kwashiorkor, and nonorganic failure to thrive.

16. Describe the distinction between gross motor and fine motor development.

a. With respect to motor development, what is the distinction between sequence and rate?

17. List and describe the 15 milestones (and their normative ages) of motor skills.

a. Which skills illustrate cephalocaudle? Which proximodistal? Both?

18. Can motor skills be taught early to kids?

19. Explain what voluntary reaching is, and how it is related to cognitive development.

a. What is prereaching?

b. What are the types of grasping a baby develops?

20. List and describe the 3 types of learning (classical, operant, and observational) and the features of each.

21. What is the difference between sensation and perception?

  1. Describe how hearing and vision capabilities change over the 1st 2 years of life.

Study Questions: Chapter 5

Cognitive Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood

1. Define the following terms: scheme, adaptation, assimilation, accommodation, organization, object permanence, mental representation, deferred imitation, functional and make-believe play, mental strategies, zone of proximal development, DAP, underextension, overextension, telegraphic speech, motherese, infantile amnesia

2. Describe how schemes evolve as a result of one’s experiences into psychological structures.

3. In detail and using the appropriate terminology, list and describe how adaptation and organization produce change in Piaget’s schemes.

4. Describe the 6 substages of the sensorimotor stage of intellectual development.

a. In which substage(s) does object permanence and mental representations appear.

b. Summarize how recent research has caused many researchers to reappraise Piaget’s timetable for when cognitive milestones are typically acquired.

5. List and describe the 3-stage model of memory according to Atkinson and Shiffren.

a. Explain how cognitive theorists use "categorization" to describe how information is stored in LTM, and indicate whether it is the structures of memory that changes as one develops, or "capacities."

6. Optimal retrieval of information from LTM occurs under two conditions. List each. (Hint: Bransford’s model, and activeness).

7. Describe the categorization abilities of youngsters as they "move" through the 1st stage of intellectual development.

a. Describe the role(s) language plays in the development of memory.

8. Describe (p. 156) the 2 conditions that must be met before a baby develops autobiographical/episodic LTM.

9. How do interactions with older siblings, parents, and other adults influence the child’s intellectual development according to Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory? (Include a description of the zone of proximal development.)

10. Describe the steps followed to develop a standardized test to measure a concept/construct such as intelligence.

a. Why do developmentalists prefer to use the term developmental quotient rather than intelligence quotient for infants and toddlers?

b. Are intelligence test scores obtained in infancy/toddlerhood good predictors of measured intelligence in later stages of development? Why?

11. Describe how an enriched home environment and quality daycare can promote intellectual development.

12. Compared to many developed countries, American daycare is much more varied in quality. Daycare in not a luxury for working mothers. Summarize the characteristics of quality daycare programs promoted by the NAEYC (hint: DAP).

13. What is the poverty cycle, and how do early intervention programs attempt to break this vicious cycle?

14. Describe the 8 milestones associated with language development between the ages of 2 months and 26 months. (table 5.3).

15. Contrast the behavioral and nativist approaches to language.

a. The author of your text concludes (p. 165) that the conditioning model is one of support rather than a good explanation for language acquisition. The operant processes cited in her discussion of the behavioral perspective, however, is incomplete; spontaneous and programmed generalization and modeling are ignored and are critical to a behavioral explanation of language.

b. Describe Chomsky’s theory of language development, and evaluate his premises using the concepts of hypothetical constructs and parsimony.

16. Distinguish between under and overextensions.

  1. Parallel the rate of learning new words with the development of memory capabilities as children get older.

Study Questions: Chapter 7

Physical and Cognitive Development: Early Childhood

1. Define the following terms: asynchronous, general growth curve, growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), deprivation dwarfisms, operations, make-believe play, sociodramatic play, egocentrism, animistc thinking, reversibility, transductive reasoning, hierarchical organization, conservation, cardinality, grammar, overregularization, pragmatics

2. Describe the average changes in weight and height for boys and girls during the early childhood (EC) years.

3. Name the two "sets" of teeth children develop, indicating (a) when permanent teeth start appearing (and when complete), and why teeth care is important for both sets.

4. List the 3 characteristics of the general growth curve.

5. How do genes influence an individual’s growth?

6. What are the three health outcomes for preschoolers who have very stressful environments?

7. Describe the eating habits of preschoolers, and write a summary describing at least 4 things parents can do to get kids to eat a variety of foods.

8. Name several common diseases of childhood, and explain 2-3 ways infectious diseases adversely affect growth.

9. Kids frequently sustain injuries. Your text carefully and intentionally uses the phrase "unintentional injuries" rather than "accidents." Explain why. Name the leading sources of unintentional injuries.

a. Drowning is the 2nd leading cause of unintentional injury producing death for boys in the US. According to the text, 90% of drowning deaths are in pools. The author recommends fencing in pools as a way of preventing this type of death. Describe three other things parents can do to make the likelihood of unintentional injuries less likely.

10. Summarize, by age, the gross and fine motor skills that develop during EC.

11. Describe 2-3 ethnic and gender related differences in motor skills development.

a. How can one’s environment exaggerate small, genetically-based differences in motor performance?

12. In detail, describe the cognitive characteristics/capabilities of children in the second of Piaget’s stages of intellectual development.

Describe at least 4 types of conservation

13. Why is play so important to children, and plays an important role in their cognitive development?

14. There are THREE ways early childhood educators have employed Piaget’s THEORY in their instruction. These three approaches are not based on research and may not be the best principles for all children’s cognitive advancement. Describe these three principles: Emphasize discovery learning; children’s readiness to learn, accept individual differences.

15. Piaget de-emphasized the role of language in cognitive development. Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory emphasizes how language is critical to the development of the child’s social communication. Describe Vygotsky’s view of how language (e.g., self-talk) helps kids become more effective in their thinking and actions.

a. How is Vygotsky’s assisted discovery different than Piaget’s discovery learning, and what is the role the zone of proximal development?

16. Describe the sequence of mathematically reasoning during EC.

17. List, by percentages, the settings where most preschoolers receive care.

18. Describe the difference(s) between child-centered and academic preschools.

19. Project Follow Through (PFT) is NOT portrayed accurately in the text; it suggests that all kids who went (or go) through a Head Start program enjoy benefits. NOT TRUE. Be able to summarize the PFT results (class).

20. On pg. 235 the text says that "Research shows that ‘Sesame Street’ works well as an academic tutor’ (Kerke, 1998, p. 235). Notice that no studies supporting this statement are cited, though a few studies are cited in the paragraph. Describe the role that programs such as Sesame Street have with respect to educational learning.

21. Describe the receptive vocabulary kids exhibit between 2 and 6.

    1. How can repeated exposures, expansions, and recasts positively benefit children’s language learning?
    2. Direct Instruction Models. Sometimes called process-product studies.

      I. A. The Economic Opportunity Act (l964) initiated a great number of anti-poverty programs.

      l. Education was (and is) seen as the #l way to break the cycle of poverty, and the Head Start program was begun in l965

      a. Data collected early in the Head Start program suggested that students' initial gains were lost when they began regular elementary school. PL 90-92 was passed by Congress in l967. It authorized Project Follow Through to monitor the success (failure) of the Head Start program.

      2. Project Follow Through has often been described as the most expensive and comprehensive social study ever conducted in the world (over l billion dollars!). The program evolved into a longitudinal experiment designed to identify/evaluate the most effective methods to educate disadvantaged children.

      3. The experiment allowed different (a) philosophies of ed., (b) curricula, and (c) instructional methods to be implemented and evaluated. As approaches (philosophies) were identified, its sponsors were allowed to develop instructional materials and to train teachers how to use them.

      a. "sponsors" were selected during l968. Twelve formal proposals were funded with l0 additional ones being added over the next 3 years.

      b. Sites. 225 school districts were nominated as "test" sites, 5l were selected to participate based on the districts' ability to put in place a comprehensive evaluation unit. Each site was paired with sponsored models. Local representatives were allowed to select the model (philosophy) they thought most compatible with the goals/interests of their district. Participating students received daily instruction based on the model selected from kindergarten through 3rd grade.

    3. The models were clustered into three broad categories according to their primary emphasis:

Basic Skills: included Direct Instruction, Behavior Analysis and the Language Development (bilingual) Approach. Each of the 3 models focused on teaching basic skills in reading, arithmetic, spelling and language.

Cognitive-Conceptual: included the Florida Parent Education, Tucson Early Educational Model, and the Cognitively Oriented Curriculum. Each model attempted to teach "learning-to-learn" and problem-solving skills.

Affective-Cognitive: included Responsive Education, Bank Street, and Open Education. Each emphasized developing high self-concept, positive attitudes toward learning, and "learning-to-learn" skills.

d. The children in each model were periodically assessed in specific achievement areas (including basic academic skills), general problem-solving skills, and on self-concept. Data were collected on the kids annually from kindergarten through the end of the 3rd grade. (These are formal data collected by Project Follow Through; other researchers have systematically assessed the performance of the Follow Through kids and their cohorts [paired districts]. One such study compared Follow-through kids from the Ocean Hill-Brownsville district of NYC, one of the 2 or 3 poorest in NYC. They found:

l. Significantly more FT Ss graduated from H.S. (57% v 35%)

2. " more FT Ss applied to college (39% v 10%)

3. Fewer FT Ss dropped out of school (39% v 58%)

4. FT Ss were reading at grade in the 9th grade (md.=9.5 on CAT) while their comparison group scored (md=7.1)

e. Results of evaluation.

1. All kids in the Basic Skills programs did better on measures of academic skills than their cohorts. All models other than those labeled basic skills had more negative than positive outcomes on measures in the basic skills domain. This means that disadvantaged kids learn better in traditional programs in elementary schools than they do if taught using the non-basic skills methods evaluated in FT! Restated, the FT kids in non-basic skills programs did worse than their cohorts!

2. The DI model showed greater gains in all three areas (e.g., basics, cognitive domain [reading comprehension and problem-solving] and affective [self-concept & responsibility for one's own performance]) domain than the other models.

f. If DI is so good, why are these other models being used?

l. FT was designed to identify effective instructional methods. One criterion of effectiveness is adoption (catch 22 coming-up!). Methods can't be adopted unless they're available to the public (i.e., schools). So, the Joint Dissemination Review Panel and the National Diffusion Network (these federal agencies are charged with disseminating info. about instructional methods) received information from all the methods examined by Project FT and 22 of them were validated as exemplary, and once a program is validated as effective it's packaged and disseminated to school districts.

Even though, among those 22, there were many that failed to improve academic achievement in project FT! JDRP was criticized for this practice, but they wanted to be "fair" and represent the multiplicity of methods in education, even though the practice (the way information about the various programs is disseminated) makes it almost impossible for school districts to discriminate between effective and ineffective programs. Thus, the bureaucracy defeated the very reason PFT, JDRP and NDN were created to meet.

  1. Other reasons why ineffective instructional methods continue to be used:
    1. Fed. funding decisions: validated programs received static or lowered funds; nonvalidated received increased level in order to become validated!
    2. policymakers are typically not educational experts; they get advice from professionals and these folks often have philosophies that differ from what FT showed effective (e.g., Chair of the N. Advisory Com. was the dean of the Bank St. Col. of Ed., whose model PFT showed to be ineffective!).
    3. Colleges of Ed.: have a vested interest in the status quo.
    4. Teachers: often unaware of research that shows what is and is not effective. Their teaching behaviors are usually very different than the teaching behaviors used in DI.
    5. Administrators of local school districts don't want the disruption that might occur when retraining of teachers is required, even if they could afford ($) it.
    6. Mainstream publishers usually don't initiate development of "unusual" materials but react to the demands of the educational establishment.
    7. The public doesn't know enough to demand better materials; parents accept that it's their kid's fault that the child isn't learning!

All of us, parents, teachers, professors, administrators and "bureaucrats" must realize that the research is unequivocal: "how well students learn is more a function of how they are taught than any other factor."


Watkins, C. L. (l988). Project Follow Through: A story of the identification and neglect of effective instruction. Youth Policy, l0(7), 7-11.

Study Questions: Chapter 8

Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood

1. Define the following terms: empathy, induction, altruistic behaviors, gender typing, androgyny

2. Describe early childhood in terms of Erickson’s psychosocial stage of initiative vs. guilt.

3. Contrast what is meant by self-concept vs. self-esteem.

a. Describe the 5 factors that help a child develop a healthy self image.

4. Describe the sequence of emotional understanding kids go through between 2 and 6.

a. In EC, what types of situations do young children have difficulty interpreting correctly?

b. Describe 3 tactics young children often use to help them regulate their emotions.

5. Describe the 4 classes of fears young children often have and how parents can help them to manage such fears.

6. Peer sociability occurs in three stages: nonsocial activity, parallel and associative play, and cooperative play. Describe each. Contrast the forms of sociability with the 3 categories of play (i.e., functional, constructive, and make-believe).

7. List and describe Kohlberg’s stages and substages of moral development (lecture/handout) and contrast his view of moral development with Piaget’s.

8. Describe 2 reasons why INDUCTION helps children internalize prosocial behaviors.

9. Modeling is one of the most powerful socializing factors children experience. A model’s characteristics dramatically affect their impact on a learner. Describe the 3 characteristics of model’s that affect a learner’s imitation.

10. Describe at least 3 reasons why overemphasizing of punishment to control behaviors is not good. Among the alternatives to punishment [ R + (-) = - ] are timeout and response cost. Define each and contrast them to each other and to punishment.

When decreasing unwanted behaviors, careproviders should follow three precepts: Consistency, warmth, and explanations. Describe each.

11. Describe the two types of aggressions (instrumental and hostile) and trace the development of each during Early Childhood, and across genders.

a. Describe 2 reasons why boys are more likely to be more aggressive than girls.

b. Summarize the effects of TV and its relationship to aggression.

12. Summarize the amount of time kids in EC (2-6 yr.) spend in same-sex and opposite-sex play.

a. Describe the ways families, teachers, and peers promote gender stereotyping, and present at least 2 ways caregivers can reduce such stereotyping.

13. Describe (demandingness and responsiveness) the 2 broad dimensions of parenting and the FOUR (authoritative, authoriarian, permissive, univolved) parenting styles the dimensions produce. Evaluate each of the 4 parenting styles.

14. Describe the 5 types of child maltreatment.

15. Describe the 5 factors (parent, child, family, community, and cultural) related to child maltreatment.



One of the most important traits that we learn is the ability to tell right from wrong. Moral development, conscience, and ethics are all terms we use to name the process through which we learn to deal fairly with others.

The preschool child's training and experience gradually teach him which actions are considered acceptable by other people and which are not. He learns that doing certain things, or even wanting to do them, may lead to punishment.

Morality, however, consists of more than avoiding punishment by behaving properly. It means understanding that the needs of others are as valid as your own. If you find a stranger's wallet and return it because you think you may have been seen picking it up, you are behaving cautiously. If you return it out of consideration for the owner (the golden rule), you are acting morally. The distinction is obvious to most adults, but not to children. (Ethics are generally codified rules of conduct associated with professional groups, business, and government.)

Piaget believed that moral development, like all other phases of human development, occurs in a series of stages. Because of the egocentricity of children who are 7 or younger, Piaget doubts that preschoolers are capable of empathizing with others to the degree required for truly moral behavior (from an adult's perspective). Thus, preschoolers cannot be taught morality but they can learn to behave properly. Is learning to behave properly a prerequisite for moral cognition? Other researchers disagree with Piaget, and feel that by 3 the child is able to show empathy for others--to a degree.

Still, it is the child's increasing social awareness that largely accounts for the early manifestations of sympathy, conscience, and generosity during the preschool period. As he becomes more conscious of the needs and concerns of others, he begins to desire the satisfaction of their needs as well as his own, and his behavior can show a growing capacity for sharing and compassion.

Piaget's View of Morality:

Depending on which source one inspects (few of us read Piaget's original work in French!), Piaget's theory of moral development can be characterized as having two stages (moral absolutism and moral relativism roughly corresponding to the first two periods and last two periods of intellectual development), or three. We will take the latter approach.

1. Premoral (birth-7). This stage has two phases. The first phase's cognitive counterpart is the sensori-motor stage, and both phases reflect an extremely egocentric self. Very little moral reasoning occurs in the first phase because the child is learning about himself and his world through sensations, impulses, and feelings generated by his experiences. The second phase of the premoral stage is marked by a focus on the caretaker (rather than the self) as an authority figure, and the child attempts to behave in a way satisfactory to the caretaker.

2. Concrete. (7-11). In this stage the child focuses on the mental relationships between peers on an equal, give-and-take basis in a concrete situation. The child tends to classify alternatives dichotomously (right/wrong, etc.). Because the child focuses on the real world, they often show moral reasoning that is highly inflexible. ("Rules are important and you can break the rules" even though the child makes-up and/or changes the rules all the time!)

3. Moral relativity. (11-adulthood). Once one enters the final stage of cognitive development (formal operations). However, remember that not all of the people who actually enter this stage always use the abilities associated with this period, or are capable of making moral judgments based on realistic appraisals of (a) situational variables, and (b) both short and long term consequences of the behavior/product.

Kohlberg's Theory

Piaget's theory of morality also is noteworthy because it served as a starting point for Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development. Essentially, Kohlberg's theory meshed Freud's psychoanalytic (ego and superego's conscience) with behavioral processes and Piaget's views on moral reasoning. The result is three levels of sequential moral reasoning with each level having two substages or types.

In the preconventional stage (level one), children first learn conduct as a result of punishment and their obedience orientation. In the second type of level one, the child learns to behave in a particular way to both obtain material reward and to avoid punishment for inappropriate behavior. In the second stage or level of moral development (conventional), social relations determine behavior (type three), so the child does what will result in approval (social rewards) from significant others. In type four of level two, the child is concerned with conformity to authority (Rules are important).

At the final level (morality in terms of self-accepted principles, or post-conventional), the child begins to view morality in terms of individual rights (type five), and as ideals and principles that have value as rules or laws, apart from their influence on approval. The person's individual notions of right and wrong (type six) begin to take precedence at this stage.

Self Concept: (Note: The Berk text treats self-concept and self-esteem as different constructs; many professions today view the two as so inextricably intertwined that that they can be viewed as synonymous, which is the perspective we will adopt.)

American educators and researchers just don't get it! So many believe, incorrectly, that the way to raise students' achievement is to raise their self concept. It doesn't work this way. First, there are different levels of self concept (SC). General SC is the global aggregate of who one views oneself, and it is "made up" of academic and non-academic SCs. (While I haven't read research on this, I assume that GSC is affected more by one's non-academic SC than by academic SC--maybe an 80:20 ratio??)

There is a low-to-moderate correlation between SC and academic achievement depending on which level/type of SC one correlates with academic performance. Where many go astray is in their misplaced belief that it is SC driving/producing achievement. Logically, one would expect the strongest correlation between academic achievement and academic SC and this is what researchers find. However, SC researchers invariably concluded (illogically) that raising SC (general or academic) will raise achievement, when in fact, research shows that raising achievement produces corresponding increases in academic SC and only small increments in general/global SC. This skewed interpretation is nicely (unfortunately) illustrated by Mboya (1989)2:

The low positive correlation between global self-concept and academic achievement found in this study seriously challenges the success of educational intervention programs that seek to raise academic achievement of students by enhancing global self-concept. Educational intervention strategies geared to raise academic achievement would probably be more likely to succeed if they were focus on enhancement of academic self-concept rather than on global self-concept. [italics added] (pp. 43-44)

The "way" to raise achievement is to directly focus on students' academic performance. Giving them sufficient opportunity to learn and quality instruction that is appropriate to their ability will produce achievement gains which will increase academic SC. Simultaneously, educators and schools should also have other programs that specifically address students' nonacademic SC. We should be concerned with the whole child, not just one facet.

Study Questions: Chapter 9

Physical Development in Middle Childhood

1. Define the following terms: myopia, nocturnal enuresis, reversibility, transitive inference and seriation,

2. Describe the general features that characterize growth for girls and boys during middle childhood (MC). How does this growth differ from the growth that occurred in EC?

a. When do growth spurts occur in MC?

3. Parents invariably tell their children that "you’ll ruin your eyes reading in that dim light." Evaluate the statement’s accuracy.

a. What is involved with an ear infection and why is it of concern during MC?

4. Parents of MC are encouraged to provide "good" snacks for their kids. Why?

5. Explain the causes of obesity during MC, and indicate the factors that are associated with its occurrence.

a. Obesity is an increasing problem in the US. What are the outcomes of obesity, and how should concerned parents approach the problem?

6. Describe the method recommended by your text to "treat" bedwetting. Develop an alternative not discussed in the text that one might try before resorting to Berk’s recommendation.

7. Asthma is the common reason why kids miss school and are put in hospitals. Describe the factors associated with the disease and what parents can do to alleviate it.

8. Compare the frequency and nature of Uis in MC to those in EC.

9. Describe the 3 reasons health practices are so difficult to modify during MC.

10. Summarize the changes in gross motor development and fine motor development that occur during MC.

Describe at least two differences between the play of EC and MC.

11. Using appropriate terminology, describe the characteristics of the 6-11 year old who is in Piaget’s stage of concrete operations.

12. Describe how a child’s attention capacity changes in 3 ways.

a. Describe the three (rehearsal, organization, and elaboration) memory strategies MC kids can employ once they are functioning at the concrete level.

13. Berk paints a rosy picture of the Great Reading Debate suggesting that the whole language approach to reading may be as effective as a good phonics approach. This just is not the case; the good research on which method works for children to train them to become good readers clearly demonstrates that phonics (such as DISTAR) is a prerequisite before whole language principles can be applied (kids have to already be able to read before they can benefit from whole language’s philosophical principles!). Describe the differences between whole language and phonics based reading.

14. Describe the differences between group and individual standardized tests.

15. Describe the 3 components of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence.

a. Describe Gardner’s 7 multiple intelligences.

c. Compare Gardner’s multiple intelligences to Sternberg’s triarchic theory.

16. Many kids who attend schools in the US do not use "standard" English proficiently. Explain why we should respect dialectic differences while requiring at the same time, that all children in American schools become proficient with written and spoken English.

17. Look up the word "idiom" in a dictionary. Explain how the language skills of kids in MC relate to idioms.

18. How does bilingualism benefit or harm students? How does the US differ compared to other nations with respect to teaching foreign languages?

19. What are the differences between traditional and open classrooms? Are the definitions specific enough for you to identify when a class is/isn’t one or the other?

20. Why should teachers be effective classroom managers?

21. Can the label learning disabled be a catch-all term for students who, because of their backgrounds and poor teaching (e.g., whole language) don’t learn necessary academic skills but could? Explain your answer.

22. Describe 2 ways mainstreaming benefits students and 2 ways it may harm them. Describe at least one way mainstreaming may harm regular education students.

  1. How are divergent and convergent thinking related to creativity?

Study Questions: Chapter 10

Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood

1. Describe Erickson’s industry vs. inferiority stage of psychosocial development.

2. Attributions refers to one’s attempts to explain success and failure. Academic attributions "fit" into two basic categories (internal--which the kid has some control over, and external which the kid has little control over); each category has two subparts: Internal’s are effort and ability, External’s are luck and task difficulty. Contrast the attributions made by kids with high self-concept/esteem to those with low self-concept/esteem.

3. Briefly contrast the MC kid’s emotional development to those of one in EC.

4. a. Describe Selman's 5 stages of perspective taking (undifferentiated, social-informational, self-reflective, 3rd-arty, and societal).

b. When given a scenario, explain which of Selman’s stages the child is operating in.

5. Contrast the three forms of distributive justice (equality, merit, and benevolence).

6. One of the most significant changes that occur in MC is the influence of the peer group on the individual.

a. describe how a peer group’s culture can lead to stereotyped conformity for the members of the group.

7. Describe 2-3 differences between the EC friendships and those developed during MC.

8. Peer acceptance is used to describe the degree to which children are liked by other children. There are four categories of peer acceptance. Describe each (popular, rejected, controversial, and neglected).

9. A continuing controversy associated with parenting focuses on whether parents should/should not be their children’s friend. Describe the reasons/advantages for being your child’s friend and 3 reasons why one shouldn’t be your child’s friend. Explain your decision by weighing each set of reasons.

10. Keeping "track" of where our children are is an issue that all parents must content with during MC. With recent advances in cellular phones and beepers, write an essay explaining why parents should/shouldn’t provide kids with such devices.

a. Develop and evaluate several alternatives that allow kids "freedom within mutually agreed boundaries" (i.e., coregulation).

b. Describe the 3 tasks parents must master to make coregulation work.

11. Summarize the positive and negative influences that siblings have on one another during MC>

12. Divorce is one of the greatest challenges American parents (and their offspring) too often must face.

a. Describe the challenges children of divorce face (a) in general, (b) by gender, and (c) by age.

b. How long, typically, after divorce does it "get better" for kids? Why?

c. Describe 6 ways every parent/couple can help kids adjust to the parents’ divorce.

13. After divorce often there is a remarriage. Describe 2 adjustment issues associated with remarrying.

14. Explain how parental employment can positively/negatively affect children.

a. Summarize the research on self-care/latchkey children.

15. The two most common problems of development during MC are fears/anxieties, and sexual abuse.

a. Who is most likely to become school phobic, and what can parents do to help their kids with these types of problems?

    1. Describe the characteristics of sexual abusers and their victims.

Study Questions: Chapter 11

Physical and Cognitive Development: Adolescence

1. Define the following terms: puberty, adolescence, menarche, spermarche, secular trend, dual ambivalence, body image

2. Adolescence, like all periods of human development, is affected by both hereditary and environmental factors. Describe two environmental factors that suggest that the social environment may exert more influence on adolescence than heredity.

3. Describe the onset of puberty (physical changes, age at onset) for boys and girls. Besides GH and TSH, what other hormones affect physical development during adolescence?

4. Adolescence is often described as one of "awkwardness." What are the physical reasons for youths increased awkwardness?

5. Describe at least 4 primary and 3 secondary sex characteristics that occur in adolescence, and the "average" age of occurrence.

6. Describe at least two reasons why puberty occurs earlier today than it did a 100 years ago.

7. Through the periods of life we have examined thus far, advance knowledge of what is likely to occur "next" increasingly (from MC on) makes one’s transition easier. Describe how this applies to puberty and why it is important for your transition(s) into the periods of adulthood.

8. Identify several sources of adolescents’ "moodiness."

9. Summarize the advantages/disadvantage for early and late matureres of each sex.

10. The adolescent views "health" very differently than does the MC kid. Describe 2 ways they view health now.

a. Describe the nutrition needs of health males and females during adolescence.

b. Describe the 2 serious eating disorders that are most common to adolescent females (anorexia and bulimia).

11. Describe several ways our cultural affects (often adversely) the sexual attitudes and practices of adolescents.

12. What are the characteristics of most sexually-active adolescents?

13. What percentage of the population are likely to be homosexual? Best on the current knowledge base, is homosexuality biological or environmental? Explain. Describe the additional burdens homosexual adolescents must contend with.

14. Describe the health risks associated with sexual activity during adolescence.

a. Teens are lousy parents. Explain why.

b. Becoming a biological parent during adolescence poses serious risks to the individual’s (and his/her offspring’s) future well being. Describe three reasons for this.

15. List and describe the 7 most common STDs. Why is AIDS the "most serious" STD.

16. Distinguish between experimenters and abusers in terms of drug use. Is all drug use a form of drug abuse? Explain

17. Describe Piaget’s 4th stage of intellectual development (formal operations), and its 2 major features (i.e., hypothetico-deductive reasoning, and propositional thought).

18. Teenagers generally are more argumentative than they were during MC. Explain why "appropriate" arguments with parents, teachers, etc. is beneficial to their social and cognitive development.

19. One characteristic of adolescence is a return--though in a different form--to egocentrism. This is reflected in the concepts of "imaginary audience" and "personal fables." Contrast these.

20. Educationally, one of the biggest challenges facing an adolescence is adapting to the demands of a "learning" environment (vs. teacher environment) that high schools and postsecondary education demands. What is the difference between these two environments?

  1. It is important for the vitality of our society to insure that the population is highly educated. Why? List 4 ways to decrease the likelihood of at risk students dropping out.

Study Questions: Chapter 12

Emotional and Social Development in Adolescence

1. Define the following terms: heteronomous morality; autonomous morality; gender intensification; automony

2. Describe what occurs during Erickson’s identify versus identify diffusion (aka, "role confusion").

a. According to the text, adolescents can be classified into 4 "identify statuses:" Identity achievement, moratorium, identity foreclosure, and identity diffusion. Describe each, and indicate which statuses are most likely to be related with emotional and adjustment difficulties.

3. Compare Piaget’s stages of moral development with those of Kohlberg’s

4. Both Piaget and Kohlberg cite two factors that are instrumental in the development of moral and cognitive reasoning. Describe each.

a. Summarize the research relevant to the validity of Kohlberg’s theory.

b. Explain whether Kohlberg’s theory applies across cultures.

5. The gender typing that started at birth continues during the period of adolescence. Describe the sequence of gender typing that characterizes the development of males and females during the adolescent period.

6. Explain how the four major parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved) affects the adolescent’s relationship with the parents.

7. Change is probably the most important word that describes the relationship challenges that the adolescent must confront.

a. Describe how one’s relationship with siblings is likely to change during adolescence.

8. Describe the 2 characteristics of friendships that most adolescents stress.

a. How do females and males differ with respect to how they view friendships?

b. Describe the 3 benefits adolescents derive from their friendships, and how do these benefits differ from the friendships one has as an adult?

9. Distinguish between peer groups, cliques, and crowds.

a. How do parenting styles influence an adolescent’s choice of a crowd?

b. How does one peer group help one adjust to the demands of interacting with (and dating) members of the opposite sex?

10. Conformity and rebelliousness are both affected by one’s peers. Describe how peers affect adolescents in these two areas.

11. There are six areas that can cause major problems in one’s development during adolescence: premature parenthood, substance abuse, school failure, depression, suicide, and delinquency. Summarize how these negatively impact those they affect, and explain how parenting styles are related to them.

a. The text’s author, throughout the book, selectively cites cross-cultural research comparing US policy, etc. that both supports her social agenda (increased governmental control over individuals’ lives to "make it better") and, it appears, to make the US "look bad" compared to other developed and underdeveloped countries. Japan has one of the world’s highest suicide rates amongst it teens yet these data are not presented. Explain why you feel Berk’s presentation of development is or is not biased.

b. Describe the two types of young people who typically commit suicide.

c. Describe at least 6 of the 13 warning signs of impending suicide.

d. Describe the 7 ways one can respond to potentially suicidal youth.

12. Juvenile delinquency is most commonly linked to the youth’s family characteristics. Describe the factors associated with juvenile delinquency.


Study Questions: Chapter 13

Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood

1. Define the following terms: Biological aging, maximum lifespan, active lifespan, BMR, saturated and unstaturated fat, rape, PMS, expertise

2. When does biological aging commence, and describe the theories associated with its occurrence.

3. Describe how life expectancy for adults has changed since 1900. Describe at least 4 reasons for this change.

a. Describe the relationship between one’s gender and SES with life expectancy.

4. Describe the general changes that occur in one’s motor performance as one ages.

a. When do male/female athletic skills peak?

5. Name and describe the function(s) of the white cells associated with the immune system.

6. Describe the various types of relationships between one’s health and general fitness during early adulthood (EA).

a. What is the relationship between death causes and adulthood?

a. What 3 demographics are most associated with long life?

7. a. Describe the relationship between adult obesity and health.

b. Describe the effective treatment for obesity during adulthood.

c. Describe at least 3 ways exercise benefits people in EA.

d. How often does regular exercise need to occur to be beneficial?

8. Explain how alcoholism differentially affects males and females across ages.

9. How has sexual behavior among EA’s changed? How do EA’s select sex partners?

10. Describe the 6 behavioral patterns associated with a healthy adulthood.

11. Explain several reasons why postsecondary education is beneficial to a fulfilling life.

a. Describe at least 3 reasons EA's drop out of college.

b. Describe the 3 periods associated with career choosing.

    1. Describe 4 factors that affect one’s career choice.

Study Questions: Chapter 14

Emotional and Social Development during Early Adulthood

1. Define the following terms:

2. Describe in detail the last 3 stages of Erickson’s psychosocial stages.