The “between-subjects t test” component of the Results section actually contains two elements of information. The “between-subjects” element indicates that the independent variable was manipulated between two different groups. One group served as the experimental group, whereas a different group served as the control group. Note the distinctions between this type of manipulation and one that manipulates the independent variable within-subjects. The within manipulation of the independent variable typically uses the same group of participants in both conditions. For example one group serves as the experimental group and again as their own control group. These two distinctive designs require two distinctive analyses as well as two distinctive coding strategies (univariate or multivariate- see the SPSS Tutorial for specific instructions on these data coding strategies. Although the t test used in the current example has a number of different names, in addition to being called a “between-subjects t test” it is often referred to as an “independent-samples t test.” This latter designation is the one used by SPSS. Statistical analyses involving differences between two groups (or two means) are appropriately analyzed using t tests.