Kryptolebias marmoratus Clones Maintained in the

Valdosta State University Colony

 

Maintenance and Propagation of Clones

 

Community Tanks—Clones are maintained in covered community tanks (11.3 & 14 L Sterilite storage containers) with aeration.  Aeration is achieved by running an air hose through a hole drilled in the lid and attached to an air stone.  Individuals of approximately equal size from a specific clone are housed in separate community tanks.  Individuals of different sizes are not housed together as the larger fish occasionally kill smaller ones.  To further reduce competition in the community tanks, habitat such as seashells, flower pot bottoms laid face down with holes drilled in them, rocks, and short pieces of PVC pipe are kept in the tanks.  Water depths in the tanks are maintained between 4-8 cm, and water is changed periodically depending on clarity.  Saltwater concentration in the tanks and propagation chambers discussed below is maintained between 10-13 ppt or about 1/3 strength.

 

Feeding—Larger fish are fed a diet of Tetramin flake food for tropical fish and brine shrimp on alternating days and are fed 5-7 times/week.  Newly hatched fish are fed brine shrimp until they reach approximately 12-15 mm (std) at which time they are also fed flake food as above.

 

Propagation—Eggs are harvested by two methods. (1) Two 10.5 cm clay shooting targets (Champion Target Co.) are place bottom to bottom with a 15 mm hole drilled in the top target.  To prevent fish from eating their eggs, a plastic needlepoint mesh (4.0 mm) is place in the bottom target and weighed down with a small rock. The two targets are placed in community tanks.  As time permits, the two targets are retrieved, opened and the bottom target checked for eggs.  (2) Eggs are also collected by placing a single fish in a 20 cm glass culture dish with a glass or plexiglass plate placed over the top.  Four 5 X 38 mm plastic rings cut from PVC pipe are placed in the bottom of the culture dish, needlepoint mesh (4.0 mm) wide enough the cover the bottom is placed over the rings, and an inverted flower pot bottom is placed on the needle point mesh.  Fish are allowed to lay eggs in this chamber for anywhere from 1-7 days.  

 

Eggs are harvested with a plastic transfer pipette to covered10 cm glass culture dishes and checked daily for hatchlings.  Eggs with fungal growth, dead embryos, or no signs of embryogenesis are removed when found.  Hatching begins to occur at about 3-4 weeks.  Hatchlings are transferred to 0.89 L Glad Ware food storage containers, aerated and fed brine shrimp until they are about 8-10 mm (std) at which time they are transferred to community tanks as described above.  To prevent algal growth, incubation chambers are sometimes maintained in reduced lighting.

 

Clones Maintained in the VSU Colony

 Newly hatched fish not placed in community tanks are not listed.

 

Clonal Designation

Origin

(Country or US State and Location)

Comments—(Number of community tanks: Low = 1-2; Fair = 3-4; Good = 4+; tanks have 1-10 fish each)

2K DAN

Belize, South of DAN site

Fair

50.91

Belize

Good, 50th fish caught in 1991.

DAN

Belize, Dan Griega

Low

ENP 02-2

Florida, Everglades National Park,

Fair

ENP 12

Florida, Everglades National Park

Fair

HON 2

Honduras, Roatan Island

Good

HON 7

Honduras, Roatan Island,

Good

HON 9

Honduras, Roatan Island

Low

HON 11

Honduras, Roatan Island

Good

R2

Honduras, Roatan Island

Good

RHL

San Salvador, Reckley Hill Lake,

Fair

SLC8E

St. Lucia Co, FL

Low

SSH

Florida, Brevard Co, So. Shore

Low

SS-LL

San Salvador, Lark Lake

Low

SS-RHL

San Salvador, Riggens Hill Lake

Low

VOL

Florida, Volusia Co

Good

VSU-WF-1

VSU Hybrid

Low, Cross between HON 2 X ENP 12, see publications and abstracts.